Lone Gram's web-page

Education, employment, memberships

Professor at the Department for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (previously Systems Biology) (2013-), Technical University of Denmark, at DTU National Food Institute (2010-2012), at DTU Aqua and DTU SystemBiology (2005-2010) and at the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research (2000-2005).

From 2018 to 2028, leader of a Center of Excellence: Center for Microbial Secondary Metabolites, CeMiSt

Received the Villum-Kann Rasmussen Annual Award (2016), the Fritz Kaufmann Mindefond award (2008) and Tagea Brandt travel award (2008). Ridder af Dannebrogordenen (2018). Elected to the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (2020). Member of the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (2021) 

Visiting research scientist in 2009 at Professor Roberto Kolter, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA and in 1994-95 and 1999 at Professor Staffan Kjelleberg, University of New South Wales, Australia.

Member and Vice chair of the board of the Independent Research Fund Denmark (since 2019), chairman of the Danish Research Council for Natural Sciences (2015-2016), vice chair (2014) and member (2013-2018). Editor of Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2006-2012), member of the Danish Council for Research Policy (2007-2011)

External associate professor at the RVAU 1989-2000. Consultancies for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on projects and courses related to fish technology

Member (1998-2007) and secretary (2003-2007) of ICMSF; the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (revised March 2007)

M.Sc. in food science (1980-1985) and Ph.D. (1989) from the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (RVAU)

In 2006, I joined a global scientific marin cruise (Galathea3) where we determined the distribution of culturable bacteria with antibacterial activity in the marine environment . Specifically, we have searched for organisms belonging to the Roseobacter clade but our work has also demonstrated that Pseudoalteromonas spp. and Vibrio spp. have inhibitory properties. This work can potentially be of interest in drug discovery work. A short Danish description of the project is available.

Author of >245 peer reviewed articles. Web of Science: 13,500 citations, h-index 62. ORCID-ID: 0000-0002-1076-5723


The research of my group aims at understanding how and why bacteria interacti; especially based on bacterial secondary metabolites. We also explore the natural roles of such secondary metabolites in microbiomes and in the producer organisms. We use this understanding to design biocontrol and other bio-process oriented solutions. In part, novel antibacterials are derived from (marine) bacteria and we use bacteria with desired characteristics (probiotics, producers of bioactive compounds) in our quest to control bacteria that are pathogenic either to man or to fish. Below is  brief list of topics and articles related to work in the group. You can find a description of the Bacterial Ecophysiology and Biotechnology Group. 

Natural role(s) of microbial secondary metabolites. Many microorganisms produce compunds (secondary metabolites) with antibiotic activity, as exemplified by Dr. Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin in 1928. We have since then explored these microbial compounds as antibiotics and other drugs and have also perceived their role in natural systems as defense and competitive compounds. However, in natural systems, the concentrations are much lower that those required for antibiotic activity and we are exploring in marine and soil systems how these compounds affect the producing bacteria, as well as the assembly and development of natural microbiomes. More can be found at www.cemist.dtu.dk.

Novel antibacterial compounds. We have a constant need for controlling unwanted bacteria - be it infectious or spoiling microorganisms. We spend a vast amount of our time removing or killing bacteria; washing, cleaning, disinfecting, in food preservation - and in treatment of infectious diseases. We have worked with a multitude of novel antibacterial compounds - bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, enzymes and compounds affecting quorum sensing. We are currently (2013) focusing on antibacterial compounds produced by marine bacteria and the use of antimicrobial peptides. Key to this work has been our participation in the Galathea 3 global marine research expedition. Here we collected hundreds of culturable marine bacteria capable of antagonizing other bacteria. We have from these (roseobacters, pseudoalteromonads and vibrios) isolated a suite of antibacterial compounds. Using genome-mining we have demonstrated that their potential for secondary metabolite production is even larger than hitherto thought. We also study how use of natural carbon-sources can elicit the expression of these presumed silent gene clusters.

Fish probiotics and interactions between marine bacteria. An ever increasing amount of fish is being produced in aquaculture - today almost 50% of fish used for human consumption are farmed. Although vaccines have been tremendously succesful as disease control measures, antibiotics are still used against several bacterial fish diseases. Due to the concerns raised vis-a-vis development of antibiotic resistance, alternative disease control measures must be sought. Probiotics (live microbial cultures which when supplied to the host confers a beneficial effect) have, in some scenarios, been succesful. We are currently especially interested in the potential of marine Roseobacter as fish larval probiotics. We collaborate with German, Norwegian, Greek and American research groups on this organism

Listeria monocytogenes - ecology and virulence. Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen that, in high risk population groups, can cause the serious infectious disease, listeriosis. The disease is typically transmitted with ready-to-eat food products in which the organism has grown to high numbers. We study measures to control the organism. This includes its prevalence in the environment, its persistance in food processing, its biofilm formation, prevention of growth using bioprotection - and recently also its interaction with eucaryotic cells and hosts.

Hygiene and biofilms. In the environment most bacteria will grow adhered to surfaces and not as free living cells. The ability to grow at surfaces as biofilms is also important in food processing environments. We have studied the biofilm formation and the subsequent removal of biofilms by several methods. We have, in model systems  evaluated different surface modifications and have determined the effect of surface roughness (of stainless steel) on bacterial adhesion. Currently, we collaborate with Elplatek A/S on developing copper-silver alloys as antibacterial coatings.

Quorum related interactions between marine bacteria Bacteria will through antagonistic and synergistic activities interact and influence the growth and metabolism of one another. Many pathogenic bacteria and symbiotic bacteria employ acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) in cell-to-cell communication. This communication enables them to coordinate gene expression, e.g. toxin production, in a population. We have assessed the importance of AHL communication in food spoilage and the effect of specific quorum sensing inhibtiors (QSIs). We also study AHL-signalling in fish pathogenic bacteria and have demonstrated that compounds interfereing with AHL-systems (so-called quorum sensing inhibtors) reduce vibriosis mortality in rainbow trout.

Ecology and detection of Shewanella putrefaciens . The spoilage of aerobically stored iced fish is mainly caused by growth and metabolism of S. putrefaciens. We have used the spoilage reactions (e.g. reduction of trimethylamine oxide and production of H2S or antibody technology for specific detection of this organism. We have also studied its siderophore-based iron uptake systems. Many mesophilic strains formerly identified as S. putrefaciens belong to a different species, Shewanella algae which may cause wound infections and bacteremia in humans. S. algae is a marine bacterium and can be detected in Danish marine waters when the water temperature is above 15°C. Our work has, in collaboration with American collegues, led to the identification of several new Shewanella species

Gram publications

2024 (3)

Jenkins, T.P., N. Ács, E. W. Horsted, A. Williams, Á. Duzs, I. Chatzigiannidou, M. Pichler, T. Kittilä, L. Peachey, L. Gram, N. Canibe, A. H. Laustsen, S. Brix, S. W. Thrane 2023. Protecting the piglet gut microbiata against ETEC-mediated post-weaning diarrhea using specific binding proteins. npj biofilms and microbiomes (accepted)

Roager, L., D. Athena-Vasileiadi, L. Gram and E.C. Sonnenschein 2024. Antagonistic activity of Phaeobacter piscinae against the emerging fish pathogen Vibrio crassostreae in aquaculture feed algae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 90:e01439-23. https://journals.asm.org/doi/epub/10.1128/aem.01439-23

Bech, P.K., S.A. Jarmusch, J.A. Rasmussen, M. T. Limborg, L. Gram and N.N.S.E. Henriksen 2023. Succession of microbial community composition and secondary metabolism during marine biofilm development. ISME Communications 4:ycae006.https://doi.org/10.1093/ismeco/ycae006

2023 (8)

Droumpali, A., Y. Liu, X. F. Florensa, C. Sternberg, M. Dimaki, A. J.C. Andersen, M.L. Strube, P. Kempen, L. Gram and R.R.  Taboryski 2023. Biosynthesis of antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) by marine bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens is influenced by culture of biofilms on micro-structured polymer surfaces. RSC Advances 13:33159–33166 https://doi.org/10.1039/d3ra05407a 

Garcias-Bonet, N, A. Roik, A. Dungan, H. Villela, F. Garcia, K. Quigley, M. Sweet, G. Berg6, L. Hoj, D. G. Bourne, B. Ushijima, M. Sogin, L. Gram, G. Duarte, H. Hirt, K. Smalla, A. Rosado, S. Carvalho, R. Vega-Thurber, M. Ziegler, B. Tierney, C. E. Mason, L. Blackall, M. JH van Oppen, C.R Voolstra and R. Peixoto. 2023. Horizon scanning the application of probiotics for wildlife. Trends in Microbiology (on-line). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2023.08.012. 

Bech, P.K., M.L. Strube, N.N.S.E. Henriksen, M. Bentzon-Tilia, S. Zhang and L. Gram. 2023. The potential to produce tropodithietic acid by the Phaeobacter inhibens affects the assembly of microbial biofilm communities in natural seawater. npj biofilms and microbiomes 9:12 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-023-00379-3 

Su, J., Y. Wang, M. Bai, H. Li, H. Xu, G. Guo, H. Bai, N. Rong, S.K. Sahu, H. He, C. Jin, W. Liu, M.L. Strube, L. Gram, Y. Li, E. Wang, H. Liu and H. Wu 2023. Soil conditions and plant microbiome boost the accumulation of monoterpenes in the fruit of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’. Microbiome 11:61 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-023-01504-2 

Roager, L., E.C. Sonnenschein and L. Gram 2023. Sequence-based characterization of microalgal microbiomes: Impact of DNA extraction protocol on yield and community composition. Microbiology Spectrum 11:e03408-22 https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.03408-22 

Mauritzen, J.J., E. Søndberg, P.G. Kalatzis, L. Roager, L. Gram, S.L. Svenningsen and M. Middelboe 2022. Strain-specific quorum-sensing responses determine virulence properties in Vibrio anguillarum. Environmental Microbiology 25:1344–1362 https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.16356 

Petersson, M., S.W. Thrane, L. Gram, S. Muyldermans and A.H. Laustsen 2023. Orally delivered single-domain antibodies against gastrointestinal infectious pathogens in humans and animals. Trends in Biotechnology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2023.01.015 

Lindqvist, L.L., S.-D. Zhang, M. Wibowo, A.J. Andersen, E. Sonnenschein, E. Schoof, M.W: Nielsen and L. Gram 2023. Tropodithietic acid, a multifunctional antimicrobial, facilitates niche colonization of the producer, Phaeobacter piscinae S26. mSphere 8:e00517-22 https://doi.org/10.1128/msphere.00517-22 

2022 (8)


Henriksen, N.N.S.E., M. D. Schostag, S.R. Balder, E. Sonnenschein, M.L. Strube, P.K. Bech and L. Gram 2022. The capability to produce microbial secondary metabolites govern dynamics of closely related strains in a microalgae community. ISME Communications 2:109 https://doi.org/10.1038/s43705-022-00193-6

Sanchez-Navarro, R., Nuhamunada, M., Mohite, O., Wasmund, K., Albertsen, M., Gram, L., Nielsen, P.H., Weber, T. and Singleton, C. 2022. Long-read MAGs improve identification of novel complete biosynthetic gene clusters in a complex microbial activated sludge ecosystem. mSystems 7:e0063222. https://doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00632-22

Wang, Y., X.L.  Wang, S. Sun, C. Jin, J. Su, J. Wei, X. Luo, J. Wen, T. Wei, S. Sahu, H. Zou, H. Chen, Z. Mu, X. Liu, G. Zhang, L. Gram, X. Xu, H. Yang, and E. Wang 2022. GWAS, MWAS and mGWAS provide insights into precision agriculture based on genotype-dependent microbial effects in foxtail millet. Nature Communications 13:5913 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-33238-4. 

Zhang, S.-D., L.L. Lindqvist, T. Isbrandt, I. Borre, M. Wibowo, M. Wennekers Nielsen, L. Ding, T.O. Larsen and L. Gram 2022. Cyclodepsipeptides, solonamides, influence motility in the native producer, Photobacterium galatheae S2753. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 88:e0110522. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.01105-22   

Peixoto, R., C.R. Voolstra, M. Sweet, C. Duarte, S. Carvalho, H. Villela, J. E Lunshof, L. Gram, D.C. Woodhams, J. Walter, A. Roik, U. Hentschel, R. Vega Thurber, B. Daisley, B. Ushijima, D. Daffonchio, R. Costa, T. Keller-Costa, J. Bowman, A.S. Rosado, G. Reid, C. Mason, J.B. Walke, T. Thomas and G. Berg 2022. Harnessing the microbiome to prevent global biodiversity loss. Nature Microbiology 7:1726–1735  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-022-01173-1 

Henriksen, N.N.S.E., L.L. Lindqvist, M. Wibowo, E.C. Sonnenschein, M. Bentzon-Tilia and L. Gram 2022. Role is in the eye of the beholder – the multiple functions of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid produced by marine Rhodobacteraceae. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuac007 

Tesdorf, J., A.U. Geers, M.L. Strube., L. Gram and M. Bentzon-Tilia 2022. Roseobacter group probiotics exhibit differential killing of fish pathogenic Tenacibaculum species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 88:e0241821https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.02418-21   

Geers, A.U., Y. Buijs, M.L. Strube, L. Gram and M. Bentzon-Tilia 2022. The natural product biosynthesis potential of the microbiomes of Earth – bioprospecting for novel anti-microbial agents in the meta-omics era. Comp. Structur. Biotechnol. J. 20:343-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.12.024  

2021 (10)

Ding, L., S. Zhang, A Haidar, M. Bajimaya, Y. Guo, T.O. Larsen and L. Gram 2021. Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams–a group of natural bioactive metallophores. Front. Chem. (accepted)

Wang, X., T.I. Pedersen, E. Ø. Christensen, J. Melchiorsen, T. O. Larsen, S.-D. Zhang and L. Gram 2021. Identification and verification of the prodigiosin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) in Pseudoalteromonas rubra S4059. Microbiology Spectrum (accepted)

Droumpali, A., J. Hübner, L. Gram and R. Taboryski 2021. Fabrication of Micro-Structured Surface Topologies for the Promotion of Marine Bacteria Biofilm. Micromashines 12:926. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080926

Lauritsen, J.G., M.L. Hansen, P.K. Bech, L. Jelsbak, L. Gram, and M.L. Strube 2021. Identification and differentiation of Pseudomonas species in field samples using an rpoD amplicon sequencing methodology. mSystems 6:e00704-2

Zhang, S., T. Isbrandt, L. L. Lindqvist, T. O. Larsen and L. Gram 2021. Biosynthesis of holomycin is required for biofilm formation of its native producer Photobacterium galatheae S2753. Appl. Envron. Microbiol. 87:e00169-21

Buijs, Y, S. Zhang, K.M. Jørgensen, T. Isbrandt, T.O. Larsen and L Gram 2021. Enhancement of antibiotic production by co-cultivation of two antibiotic producing marine Vibrionaceae strains. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 97: fiab041

Hansen, J., J. Melchiorsen, R.V. Mateiu, N. Ciacotich, L. Gram and E.C. Sonnenschein 2021. Effect of polymer type on the colonization of plastic pellets by marine bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Letts. 368:fnab026

Wang, X., T. Isbrandt, M.L. Strube, S.S. Paulsen, M.W. Nielsen, Y. Buijs, E.M. Schoof, T.O. Larsen, L. Gram and S.D. Zhang 2021. Chitin degradation machinery and secondary metabolite profiles in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra S4059. Mar. Drug. 19:108. doi: 10.3390/md19020108

Wang, Y., L. Shuilin, Y. Gai, G. Liu, T. Jin, H. Liu, L. Gram, M. L. Strube, G. Fan, S. Sahu, S. Liu, S. Gan, Z.-Z. Xie, L.-F. Kong, P. Zhang, X. Liu, and D. Wang 2021. Metagenomic analysis reveals community structure and their metabolic potential for nitrogen acquisition in the oligotrophic surface waters of the Indian Ocean. Front. Microbiol. 12:518865. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.518865

Sonnenschein, E.C., G. Jiménez, M. Castex and L. Gram 2021. The Roseobacter-group bacterium Phaeobacter as safe probiotic solution for aquaculture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 87:e02581-20

2020 (8)

Buijs, Y., T.I. Petersen, S. Zhang, T.O. Larsen and L. Gram 2020. The antibiotic andrimid produced by Vibrio coralliilyticus increases expression of biosynthetic gene clusters and antibiotic production in Photobacterium galatheaeFront. Microbiol. 11:622055.doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.622055

Paulsen, S.S., T.I. Petersen, M. Kirkegaard, Y. Buijs, M.L. Strube, E.C. Sonnenschein, T.O. Larsen and L. Gram 2020. Production of the antimicrobial compound tetrabromopyrrole and the Pseudomonas quinolone system precursor, 2-heptyl-4-quinolone, by a novel marine species Pseudoalteromonas galatheae sp. nov. Sci. Rep.10:1-13

Wibowo, M., C.H. Gotfredsen, E. Sassetti, J. Melchiorsen, M.H. Clausen, L Gram and L. Ding 2020. Azodyrecins A‒C, Azoxides from a Soil-derived Streptomyces sp. J. Nat. Prod. 83: 3519–3525. doi/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00339

Liao, S., Y. Wang, H. Liu, G. Fan, S. Sahu, T. Jin, J. Chen, P. Zhang, L. Gram, M.L. Strube, Q. Shi, S. Ming Y. Lee and X. Liu 2020. Deciphering the microbial taxonomy and functionality of two diverse mangrove ecosystems and their potential abilities to produce bioactive compounds mSystems 5:e00851-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00851-19

Bech, P.K., K. Lydahl, L. Gram, M. Bentzon-Tilia and M.L. Strube 2020. Marine sediments are a rich source of novel microbial diversity and biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive compounds. mSystems 5:e00782-20

Ciacotich, N., L.A. Kvich, S. Køhler, A. Andersen, N. Sanford, J. Wolcott, T. Bjarnsholt and L. Gram 2020. Copper-silver alloy coated door handles as a potential antibacterial strategy in settings. Coatings 10:790. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080790

McGenity, T.J., A. Gessesse, J.E. Hallsworth, E.G. Cela, C. Verheecke-Vaessen, E.P. Wang, M. Chavarria, M.M. Haggblom, S.  Molin, A.  Danchin, E.J. Smid, C. Lood, C.S. Cockell, C. Whitby, S.J. Liu, N.P. Keller, L.Y. Stein, S.R. Bordenstein, R. Lal, O.C. Nunes, L. Gram, B.K. Singh, N.S. Webster, C. Morris, S. Sivinski, S. Bindschedler, P. Junier, A. Antunes, B.K. Baxter, P. Scavone, K. Timmis, 2020. Visualizing the invisible: class excursions to ignite children's enthusiasm for microbes. Microb. Biotechnol. 13:844–887. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.13576

Dittmann, K.K., B.R. Rasmussen, J. Melchiorsen, E.C. Sonnenschein, L. Gram and M. Bentzon-Tilia 2020. Changes in the microbiome of mariculture feed organisms after treatment with a potentially probiotic strain of Phaeobacter inhibensAppl. Environ. Microbiol86:e00499-20.. doi.org/101128/AEM.00499-20.

2019 (11)

Reen, J., J. A. Gutierrez Barranquero, R. McCarthy, D. F. Woods, S. Scarciglia, C. Adams, K. F. Nielsen, L. Gram and F. O'Gara 2019. Quorum sensing signalling alters virulence potential and population dynamics in complex microbiome-host interactomes. Front. Microbiol. 10:2131. doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02131

Buijs, Y., P. Kjersgaard Bech, D. Albazete, E. Sonnenschein, M. Bentzon-Tilia, L Gram and S. Zhang 2019. Marine proteobacteria as sources for natural products. Nat. Prod. Rep. DOI: 10.1039/c9np00020h

Rasmussen, B.B., P.G. Kalatzis, M. Middelboe and L. Gram 2019. Combining probiotic bacteria and phages against fish pathogenic vibrios. Aquaculture 513: doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734415

Timmis, K., R. Cavicchioli, J.L. Garcia, B. Nogales, M. Chavarría, L. Stein, T.J. McGenity, N. Webster, B.K. Singh, J. Handelsman, V. de Lorenzo, C. Pruzzo, J. Timmis, J.L. Ramos Martín, W. Verstraete, M. Jetten, A. Danchin, W. Huang, J. Gilbert, R. Lal, H. Santos, S.Y. Lee, A. Sessitsch, P. Bonfante, L. Gram, R.T.P. Lin, E. Ron, Z.C. Karahan, J.R. van der Meer, S. Artunkal, D. Jahn and L. Harper 2019. The urgent need for microbiology literacy in society. Environ. Microbiol. 21:1513–1528

Ciacotich, N., J.E. Tesdorpf, K. Nørskov Kragh, M. Lichtenberg, T. Bjarnsholt and L. Gram 2019. In situ monitoring of the antibacterial activity of a copper-silver alloy using confocal laser scanning microscopy and pH microsensors. Global Challenges 1900044. DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201900044

Paulsen, S.S., P.K. Bech, M. L. Strube, L. Gram and E.C. Sonnenschein 2019. Marine chitinolytic Pseudoalteromonas represents an untapped reservoir of bioactive potential. mSystems 4:e00060-19

Dittmann, K.K., C.H. Porsby, P. Goncalves, E.C. Sonnenschein, M. Bentzon-Tilia, S. Egan and L. Gram 2019. The effect of sub-lethal levels of tropodithietic acid on gene expression of Vibrio vulnificus. Env. Microbiol. Rep. 11:581–588

Phippen, C.B.W., C.M. Jørgensen, M. Bentzon-Tilia, T.O. Larsen, L. Gram and E.C. Sonnenschein 2019. Isolation of antibacterial methyl troposulfenin from Phaeobacter inhibens. J Nat. Prod. 82:1387-1390

Ciacotich, N., M. Kilstrup, P. Møller and L. Gram 2019. Influence of chlorides and phosphates on the anti-adhesive, antibacterial and electrochemical properties of an electroplated copper-silver alloy. Biointerphases 14:021005

Busch, J., A. Vinayak, B.S. Moore, H.R. Machado, G. Rouse, L. Gram, P.R. Jensen 2019. Diversity and distribution of the bmp gene cluster and its products in the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Env. Microbiol. 21:1575-1585

Dittmann, K.K., E.C. Sonnenschein, S. Egan, L. Gram, M. Bentzon-Tilia 2019. Impact of Phaeobacter inhibens on marine eukaryote-associated microbial communities. Env. Microbiol.Rep. 11:401-413 doi: 10.1111/1758-2229.12698.

2018 (6)

Oxaran, V., K.K. Dittmann, S.H.I. Lee, L.T. Chaul, C.A.F. de Oliveira, C.H. Corassin, V.F. Alves, E. C. P. De Martinis and L. Gram 2018. Behavior of Foodborne Pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed-Species Biofilms Exposed to Biocides. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 84:e02038-18. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02038-18

Thøgersen, M.S. J. Melchiorsen, C. Ingham and L. Gram 2018. A co-cultivation system to study algal-bacteria interactions: influence of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi on attachment and biofilm formation of Phaeobacter inhibens. Front Microbiol 9:1705. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01705

Rørbo, N.I., A. Rønneseth, P.G Kalatzis, B.B. Rasmussen, K. Engel-Sørensen, H.P. Kleppen, H.I. Wergeland, L. Gram and M. Middelboe 2018. Potential of phage therapy in preventing Vibrio anguillarum infections in cod and turbot larvae. Antibiotics 7:42. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics7020042

Rasmussen, B.B., K.E. Erner, L. Gram and M. Bentzon-Tilia 2018. Effect of probiotic TDA-producing Phaeobacter inhibens against the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in non-axenic algae copepod systems. Microb. Biotechnol 11:1070-1079. doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13275 

Sonnenschein, E.C., C. Phippen, M. Bentzon-Tilia, S.A. Rasmussen, K.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2018. Roseobacter gardening of microalgae: Phylogenetic distribution of roseobacticides and their effect on microalgae Env. Microbiol. Rep. 10:383–393. doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12649

Ciacotich, N., R.U. Din, J.J. Sloth, P. Møller and L. Gram 2018. An electroplated copper–silver alloy as antibacterial coating on stainless steel. Surf. Coating Technol. 345:96-104. doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.04.007


2017 (14)

Freese, H.M., J. Sikorski, B. Bunk, C. Scheuner, J. P. Meier-Kolthoff, C. Spröer, L. Gram and J. Overmann 2017. Trajectories and drivers of genome evolution in surface-associated marine Phaeobacter. Gen. Biol. Evol. 9:3297-3311

Dittmann, K.K., B. B. Rasmussen, M. Castex, L. Gram and M. Bentzon-Tilia 2017. The aquaculture microbiome at the centre of business creation. Microb. Biotechnol. 10:1279-1282
Dittmann, K.K., L.T. Chaul, S. Lee, C.H. Corassin, C.A.F. de Oliveira, E.C.P. De Martinis, V.F. Alves, L. Gram and V. Oxaran 2017. Staphylococcus aureus in some Brazilian dairy industries: changes of contamination and diversity. Front. Microbiol. 8:2049. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02049
Sonnenschein,E.C. C.B.W. Phippen, K.F. Nielsen, R.V. Mateiu, J. Melchiorsen, L. Gram, J. Overmann, H.M. Freese 2017. Phaeobacter piscinae sp. nov., a novel species of the roseobacter group and potential aquaculture probiont. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002331
Oxaran,V., S. Lee, L.T. Chaul, G.V. Barancelli, C.H. Corassin, A.P. Neves, V.F. Alves,C.A.F. de Oliveira, L. Gram and E.C.P.De Martinis 2017. Changes in Listeria monocytogenesincidenceand diversity in the Brazilian dairy industry. Food Microbiol. 68:16-23
Machado, H. and L. Gram 2017. Comparative genomics reveals high genomic diversity inthe genus Photobacterium. Front. Microbiol. 8:1208
Knudsen, G.M., J.B. Nielsen, R.L. Marvig, P. Worning, Y.Y. Ng, P.Worning, H. Westh and L. Gram 2017.Longitudinal sampling of Listeria monocytogenes from food processing plants reveals genomic diversity and dates the emergence of persisting sequence types of this food-borne pathogen. Env. Microbiol. Rep. 9:428-440
MacRygaard,A., M.S. Thøgersen, K.F. Nielsen, L. Gram and M. Bentzon-Tilia 2017. Effects of Gelling Agent on culturability andculturable diversity of marine bacteria on solid media. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 83: e00243-17 doi: 10.1128/AEM.00243-17
Machado, H., J. Cardoso, S. Giubergia K. Rapacki and L. Gram 2017. FurIOS: a web-based tool for identificationof Vibrionaceae species using the fur gene. Front. Microbiol. 8:414do: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00414
Castillo, D., P.W D Alvise, R. Xu, F. Zhang. M. Middelboe and L. Gram 2017. Comparative genome analyses of Vibrio anguillarum strains reveal a link with pathogenicity traits. mSystems 2:e00001-17 


Sonnenschein, E.C., M. Stierhof, S. Goralczyk, L. Pellissier, K.Ø. Hanssen, M. de la Cruz, C. Díaz, P. de Witte, D. Copmans, J. H. Andersen, E. Hansen, V. Kristoffersen, R. Tormo, F. Reyes, R. Ebel, B. F. Milne, H. Deng, L. Gram, M. Jaspars and J. N. Tabudravu 2017. Pseudochelin A, an imidazole mixed-ligand siderophore of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040. Tetrahedon (accepted)

Curtis, T., I. Takeuchi, G.M Knudsen and L. Gram 2017. The influence of the toxin/antitoxin mazEF on growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes under stress. Toxins 9:31; doi:10.3390/toxins9010031

Rønneseth, A., P.W. D’Alvise, Ø. Tønnesen, G. Haugland, D. Castillo, T. Grotkjær, K. Engell-Sørensen, L. Nørremark, Ø. Bergh, H. I. Wergeland and L. Gram 2017. Comparative assessment of Vibrio virulence in marine fish larvae. J. Fish Dis. (in press)

Giubergia, S., C. Phippen, K.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2017. Growth on chitin impacts the transcriptome and metabolite profiles of antibiotic producing Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 and Photobacterium galatheae S2753 mSystems 2:e00141-16 


2016 (17)


Paulsen, S.S., B. Andersen, H. Machado and L. Gram 2016. Biopotential of chitinolytic marine bacteria. Mar. Drugs 14:230


Thøgersen, M.S., M.W. Delpin, J. Melchiorsen, M. Kilstrup, M. Månsson, B. Bunk, C. Spröer, J. Overmann, K.F. Nielsen, and L. Gram 2016. Production of the bioactive compounds violacein and indolmycin is conditional in a maeA mutant of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4054 lacking the malic enzyme. Front. Microbiol. 7: 1461


Bentzon-Tilia, M, E. Sonnenschein and L. Gram 2016. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture – Towards a sustainable industry. Microbial Biotechnology 9:576–584.


Sonnenschein, E., K.F. Nielsen,, P. D'Alvise, C. Porsby, J. Melchiorsen, J. Heilmann, P. Kalatzis, M. López-Pérez, B. Bunk, C. Spöer, M. Middelboe and L. Gram 2016. Global occurrence and heterogeneity of the Roseobacter-clade species Ruegeria mobilis. ISME Journal (in press, published on-line)


Knudsen, G.M., A. Fromberg, Y.Y. Ng and L. Gram 2016. Sublethal concentrations of antibiotics cause shift to anaerobic metabolism in Listeria monocytogenes and induce phenotypes linked to antibiotic tolerance. Front. Microbiol. 7:1091


Curtis, T., L. Gram and G. M. Knudsen 2016. The Small Colony Variant of Listeria monocytogenes is more tolerant to antibiotics and has altered survival in activated al in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages Front. Microbiol. 7:1056


Machado, H., N.G. Vynne, G. Christiansen and L. Gram 2016. Reclassification of Alteromonas fuliginea (Romanenko et al. 1994) as Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea comb. nov. and emended description. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. (in press, published online)


Rasmussen, B.B, T. Grotkjær, P. W. D’Alvise, G. Yin, F. Zhang, R. Xu, B. Bunk, C. Spröer, M. Bentzon-Tilia and L. Gram 2016. Vibrio anguillarum is genetically and phenotypically unaffected by long-term continuous exposure to the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82: 4802-4810


Grotkjær, T., P. D’Alvise, M. Bentzon-Tilia, K. Dierckens, P. Bossier and L. Gram 2016. Phaeobacter inhibens as probiotic bacteria in non-axenic Artemia and algae cultures. Aquaculture 462:64-69


Giubergia, S., C. Phippen, K.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2016. Influence of niche-specific nutrients on secondary metabolism in Vibrionaceae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 82:4035-4044


Billerbeck, S., S. Voget, B. Wemheuer, A. Poehlein, H.-A. Giebel, T. Brinkhoff, L. Gram, W. H. Jeffrey, R. Daniel and M. Simon 2016.  CHAB-I-5: A prominent pelagic cluster of the Roseobacter clade – biogeography, abundance and comparative genome analysis. Nat. Microbiol. 16:16063


Maansson, M., N.G. Vynne, A. Klitgaard, J.L. Nybo, J. Melchiorsen, D.D. Nguyen, L.M. Sanchez, N. Ziemert, P.C. Dorrestein, M.R. Andersen and L. Gram. 2016. An Integrated Metabolomic and Genomic Mining Workflow to Uncover the Biosynthetic Potential of Bacteria. mSystems 1:1-14 e00028-15


Grotkjær, T., P. D’Alvise, N. Dourala, K.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2016. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures. System. Appl. Microbiol. 39:180-188


Porsby, C.H. and L. Gram 2016. Phaeobacter inhibens as biocontrol agent against Vibrio vulnificus in oyster models. Food Microbiol. 57: 63–70


Machado, H., S. Giubergia, R. Mateiu and L. Gram 2016. Photobacteirum galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 66: 347-352


D’Alvise, P.W., C.B.W. Phippen, K.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2016. Influence of iron on the production of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid and its non-inhibitory analog in Phaeobacter inhibens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.  82:502-509


Citterio, L., H. Franzyk, Y. Palarasah, T. E. Andersen, R. V. Mateiu and L. Gram 2016. Improved in vitro evaluation of novel antimicrobials: potential synergy between human plasma and antibacterial peptidomimetics, AMPs, or antibiotics against human pathogenic bacteria. Res. Microbiol. 167:72–82


2015 (8)

Giubergia, S., H. Machado, R. V. Mateiu and L. Gram 2015. Vibrio galatheae sp. nov., a novel member of the Vibrionaceae family isolated from the Solomon Sea. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 65: 4503-450

Gottschalk, S., C. T. Gottlieb, M. Vestergaard, P. R. Hansen, L. Gram, H. Ingmer and L. E. Thomsen 2015. The Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptide Fallaxin Analogue, FL9, affects Virulence Gene Expression and DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Med. Microbiol. 64:1504-1513

Le Roux, F., K. Mathias Wegner, C. Baker-Austin,  L. Vezzulli, C. R. Osorio, C. Amaro, J. M. Ritchie, T. Defoirdt, D. Destoumieux-Garzón, M. Blokesch, D. Mazel, A. Jacq, F. Cava, L. Gram, C. C. Wendling, E. Strauch, A. Kirschner and S. Huehn 2015. The Emergence of Vibrio pathogens in Europe: Ecology, Evolution and Pathogenesis (Paris, 11-12 March 2015). Front Microbiol. 6:830

Gram, L., B.Barker Rasmussen, B. Wemheuer, N. Bernbom, Y.N Ng, C.H. Porsby, S. Breider and T. Brinkhoff 2015. TDA-producing Phaeobacter inhibens from the Roseobacter-clade have a natural environmental niche as surface colonizer in Danish harbors. System. Appl. Microbiol. 38:483-493

Machado, H., S. Sonnenschein, J. Melchiorsen and L. Gram 2015. Genome mining reveals unlocked bioactive potential of marine Gram-negative bacteria. BMC Genomics 16:158. DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-1365-z

Machado, H. and L. Gram 2015. The fur gene as a new phylogenetic marker in Vibrionaceae species identification. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81: 2745-2752

Gram, L 2015. Silent clusters – speak up. Invited Crystal Ball section. Microb. Biotechnol. 8:13-14

Laursen, M.F., M.I. Bahl, T.R. Licht, L. Gram, G.M. Knudsen 2015. A single exposure to a sublethal pediocin concentration initiates a resistance-associated temporal cell envelope and general stress response in Listeria monocytogenes. Env.Microbiol.17:1134-1151  

2014 (11+genome announcements)

Harrington, C., F.J. Reen, M. J. Mooij, F. Stewart, J.-B. Chabot, A. Fernandez Guerra, F.O. Glockner, K. F. Nielsen, L. Gram , A. D. W. Dobson, C. Adams and F. O'Gara 2014. Characterisation of non-autoinducing tropodithietic acid (TDA) production from marine sponge Pseudovibrio species. Mar. Drugs 12: 5960-5978.

Rasmussen, B.B., K.F. Nielsen, H. Machado, L. Gram and E.C. Sonnenschein 2014. Global and phylogenetic distribution of quorum sensing signals, acyl homoserine lactones, in the family of Vibrionaceae. Mar. Drugs 12: 5527-5546.

Bentzon-Tilia, L. Riemann and L. Gram 2014. Draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. BAL378, a potential producer of bioactive compounds. Gen. Announcements 2:e01213-14

Prol Garcia, M.J., P.W.D’Alvise, A.M. Rygaard and L. Gram 2014. Biofilm formation is not a prerequisite for production of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395. J. Appl. Microbiol 117:1592-1600

Rabe, P., Klapschinski. T.A., Brock, N.L., Citron, C.A., D’Alvise, P., Gram, L. and Dickschat, J.S. 2014. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Analogs of the Marine Antibiotic Tropodithietic Acid. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 10:1796–1801

Machado, H., M. Månsson and L. Gram. 2014. Draft Genome Sequence of Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, Producer of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites: Solonamides, Ngercheumicins, and Holomycin. Genome Announcements 2:e00535-14

Andreev, K., C. Bianchi, J.S. Laursen, L. Hein-Kristensen, L. Citterio, L. Gram, I Kuzmenko, C.A. Olsen and D. Gidalevitz 2014. Effect of Amino vs Guanidino Groups on the Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptidomimetics with Artificial, Bacteria-Mimicking Membranes. BBA Biomembranes 1838:2492–2502

Kastbjerg, V., L. Hein-Kristensen and L. Gram 2014. Triclosan induced aminoglycoside-tolerant  Listeria monocytogenes isolates can appear as small-colony variants. Antimicr.Ag.Chemother 58 : 3124 - 3132

Tan, D., L. Gram and M. Middelboe 2014. Characterization of vibriophages and their interactions with the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.80:3128-3140

Neu, A., M. Månsson, L. Gram and M.J. Prol-Garcia. 2014.Toxicity of bioactive and probiotic bacteria and their secondary metabolites using Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as eukaryotic model organisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 80 : 146 - 153

Kjaerulff, L., A. Nielsen, M. Månsson, H. Ingmer, L. Gram, T.O.Larsen and C.H. Gotfredsen 2014.Identification of Four new Cyclodepsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium. Mar.Drugs 11 : 5051-5062

D’Alvise, P.W., O. Magdenoska, K.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2013. Motility, biofilm formation, and inhibitory activity in Ruegeria mobilis are influenced by intracellular concentrations of cyclic di-GMP. Environ. Microbiol.16:1252-1266

Nielsen, A., M. Månsson, L. Gram, T.O.Larsen, R.P. Novick, D. Frees, H. Frøkiær and H. Ingmer 2014. Solonamide B inhibits quorum sensing and reduces Staphylococcus aureus mediated killing of human neutrophils. PLoS One 9: e8499 2

2013 (12)

Holch, A., T.R. Licht, H. Ingmer, and L. Gram 2013. Listeria monocytogenes strains encoding premature stop codons (PMSC) in inlA invade mice and guinea pig fetuses in orally dosed dams . J. Med. Microbiol. 62: 1799-1806

Knudsen, G.M., Y.Y. Ng and L. Gram 2013. A dormant stable subpopulation of Listeria monocytogenes-persisters survive treatment with bactericidal antibiotics. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:7390-7397

Bernbom, N., Y.Y. Ng. S.M.Olsen and L. Gram 2013. Pseudoalteromonas serve as initial bacterial attractants in mesocosms of coastal waters but have subsequent antifouling capacity in mesocosms and when embedded in paint. Appl. Environ.Microbiol 79: 6885-6893

Gottschalk, S., D. Ifrah, S. Lerche, C.T Gottlieb, M.T Cohn, H. Hiasa, P.R. Hansen, L. Gram, H. Ingmer and L.E Thomsen 2013. The antimicrobial Lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 inhibits DNA replication and induces the SOS response in Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Microbiology 13:192

Hein-Kristensen, L., H. Franzyk and L. Gram 2013. Adaptive Evolution of Escherichia coli to an α-peptide/β-peptoid Peptidomimetic Induces Stable Resistance. PloSOne 8: e73620

Hein-Kristensen, L., .M. Knapp, H. Franzyk and L. Gram 2013. Selectivity in the potentiation of antibacterial activity of α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics and antimicrobial peptides by human blood plasma. Res. Microbiol. 164: 933-940

Nielsen, L.N., M. Halberg Laren, S. Skovgaard, V. Kastbjerg, H. Westh, L. Gram and H. Ingmer 2013. Staphylococcus aureus but not Listeria monocytogenes adapt to triclosan and adaptation correlates with increased fabI expression and agr deficiency. BMC Microbiology 13(1):177

Prol Garcia, M.J., P. D’Alvise and L. Gram 2013. Disruption of cell-to-cell signalling does not abolish Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism against the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in algal systems Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:5414-5417

Holch, A., K. Webb, O. Lukjancenko, D. Ussery, B.M. Rosenthal and L. Gram 2013. Genome sequencing identifies two nearly unchanged strains of persistent Listeria monocytogenes isolated in two different fish processing plants sampled six years apart. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:2944-2951

D’Alvise, P.W., S- Lillebø, H.I. Wergeland, L. Gram and Ø. Bergh 2013. Protection of cod larvae from vibriosis by Phaeobacter spp: A comparison of strains and introduction times. Aquaculture 384:82-86

Meyer, R.L., A. Arpanaei,, S. Pillai., N. Bernbom,  J.J. Enghild, Y.Y. Ng, L. Gram, F. Besenbacher and P. Kingshott 2013. Physico-chemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with antifouling properties. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 102:504-510

Maaetoft-Udsen, K.,  N.G. Vynne, P. Heegaard, L. Gram and H. Frøkiær 2013. Pseudoalteromonas strains are potent immunomodulators due to low-stimulatory lipopolysaccharide . Innate Immunity 19:160-173.

2012 (7)

Nielsen, A., M. Månsson, R.K. Phipps, M. Wietz, A.N. Varming, T.O. Larsen, L. Gram and H. Ingmer 2012. Nigribactin, a novel siderophore produced by Vibrio nigropulchritudo modulates spa expression and inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Mar Drugs 10 :2584-2595

Knudsen, G.M., A. Holch and L. Gram 2012. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence and stress gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco-2 cell invasion. J. Appl. Microbiol. 113:1273-1286

Kastbjerg, V.G. and L. Gram 2012. Industrial disinfectants do not select for resistance inListeria monocytogenes following long term exposure . Int.J.Food Microbiol.160:11-15

D’Alvise, P., S. Lillebo, M.J.P. Garcia, H.I. Wergeland, K. F. Nielsen, Ø. Bergh  and L. Gram 2012. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis reduces Vibrio anguillarum in cultures of microalgae and rotifers, and prevents vibriosis in cod larvae.  PloS One 7:e43996

Vynne, N.G., M. Månsson  and L. Gram 2012 Gene sequence based clustering assists in dereplication of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea strains with identical inhibitory activity and antibiotic production.  Mar. Drugs 10:1729-1740

Feld, L., G.M. Knudsen and L. Gram 2012. Bacteriocidal antibiotics do not appear to cause oxidative stress in Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Env. Microbiol. 78:4353-4357

Wietz, M., M. Månsson, J.S. Bowman, N. Blom and L. Gram 2012. Wide distribution of closely related, antibiotic producing Arthrobacter strains in the marine Arctic. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 78:2039-2042.







2011 (10)

Hein-Kristensen,L., K.M. Knapp, H. Franzyk and L. Gram 2011.Bacterial membrane activity of α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains. BMC Microbiol.11:144

Christensen, E.C., L. Gram and V.G. Kastbjerg 2011. Sublethal triclosan exposure reduces Listeria monocytogenes suscpetibility to gentamicin and other 2,6 disubstituted aminoclycosides. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemother. 55:4064-4071

Månsson. M., L. Gram and T.O. Larsen 2011. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites by marine Vibrionaceae. Mar. Drugs 9:1440-1468

Wietz, M., M. Månsson and L. Gram 2011. Chitin stimulates production of the antibiotic andrimid in a Vibrio corallilyticus strain. Environm. Microbiol. Rep.3:559-564

Vynne, N.G., K.F. Nielsen, M. Månsson and L. Gram 2011. Bioactivity, chemical profiling and 16S rRNA based phylogeny of Pseudoalteromonas strains collected on a global research cruise . Mar. Biotechnol. 6: 1062-1073

Bernbom, N., Y.Y. Ng, S. Kjelleberg, T.Harder and L. Gram 2011. Marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters show antifouling activity against the marine fouling bacterium Pseudoalteromonas S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis independent of bacteriocidal activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol . 7 : 8557-8567

Månsson, M., A. Nielsen, L. Kjærulff, C.H. Gottfredsen, M. Wietz, H. Ingmer, L. Gram and T.O. Larsen 2011. Inhibition of virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by novel depsipeptides produced by a marine Photobacterium. Mar. Drugs 9: 2537-2552

Schwenteit, J., L. Gram, K. F. Nielsen, O.H. Fridjonsson, U.T. Bornscheuer, M. Givskov and B.K. Gudmundsdottir 2011. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence. Vet. Microbiol. 147:389 - 397 (doi:10.1018/j.vetmic.2010.07.020)

Porsby, C.H., M.A. Webber, K.F. Nielsen, L.J.V. Piddock and L. Gram 2011. Resistance and tolerance to tropodithietic acid, an antimicrobial in aquaculture, is hard to select. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemother. 55:1332-1337

Bernbom, N., B.F. Vogel and L. Gram 2011. Listeria monocytogenes survival of UV-C radiation is enhanced by presence of sodium chloride, organic food material and by length of bacterial attachment time. Int. J. Food Microbiol 147:69-73

2010 (9)

Wietz, M., L. Gram, B.M. Jørgensen and A. Schramm 2010.  Latitudinal patterns in the abundance of major marine bacterioplankton groups. Aquat.Microbial Ecol. 61: 179-189

Thomsen, L.E., C.T. Gottlieb, S. Gottschalk, T.T. Wodskou, H.H. Kristensen, L. Gram and H. Ingmer 2010. Mutating the heme sensing response regulator HssR in Staphylococcus aureus but not in the Listeria monocytogenes homologue results in increased tolerance to the antimicrobial peptide Plectasin. BMC Microbiol 10:307

Wietz, M., M. Månsson, C.H. Gotfredsen, T.O.Larsen and L. Gram 2010. Antibacterial compounds from marine Vibrionaceae isolated on a global expedition. Mar.Drugs 8: 2946-2960 (doi: 10.3390/md8122946 )

Vogel, B.F., L.T. Hansen, H. Mordhorst and L. Gram 2010. The survival of Listeria monocytogenes  during long-term desiccation is facilitated by sodium chloride and organic material. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 140:192-200

Månsson, M, R.K. Phipps, L. Gram, M.H.G. Munro, T.O. Larsen and K.F. Nielsen 2010. Explorative Solid-Phase Extraction (E-SPE) for Accelerated Microbial Natural Product Discovery, Dereplication, and Purification. J. Nat. Prod. 73:1126-1132

D’Alvise, P., J. Melchiorsen, C.H. Porsby, K.F Nielsen and L. Gram 2010. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by attached and planktonic Roseobacter. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:2366-2370

Holch, A., C.T. Gottlieb, M.H.Larsen, H. Ingmer and L. Gram 2010. Poor Invasion in Trophoblastic Cells but Normal Plaque Formation in Fibroblastic Cells Despite actA Deletion in a group of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Persisting in Some Food Processing Environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:3391-3397

Gram, L., J. Melchiorsen and J.B. Bruhn 2010. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms Mar. Biotechnol. 12:439-451

Kastbjerg, V.G., M.H. Larsen, L. Gram and H. Ingmer 2010. Influence of Sublethal Concentrations of Common Disinfectants on Expression of Virulence Genes in Listeria monocytogenes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 76:303-309







2009 (7)

Prol, M.J., J.B. Bruhn, J. Pintado and L. Gram 2009 Real-time PCR detection and quantification of fish probiotic Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and fish pathogenic Vibrio in microalgae, rotifer, Artemia and first feeding turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106:1292-1303

Bernbom, N., Y.Y. Ng, R.L. Jørgensen, A. Arpanaei, R.L. Meyer, P. Kingshott, R.M. Vejborg, P. Klemm, and L. Gram 2009. Adhesion of food borne bacteria to stainless steel is reduced by food conditioning films. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106:1268-1279

Kastbjerg, V.G. and L. Gram 2009. Model systems allowing quantification of sensitivity to disinfectants and comparison of disinfectant susceptibility of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes J. Appl. Microbiol. 106:1667-1681

Valiente, E., J.B. Bruhn, K.F.  Nielsen, J.L. Larsen, L. Gram and C. Amaro 2009. Vibrio vulnificus produces quorum sensing signals of the AHL-class. FEMS Microbial Ecol. 69:16-26

Kastbjerg, V.G., D.S. Kristensen, N. Arneborg and L. Gram 2009. Response at the single cell and population level of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress monitored by measurements of intracellular pH and viable counts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 75: 4550-4556

Bernbom, N., Ng, Y.Y., Paludan-Müller and L. Gram 2009. Survival and growth of Salmonellaand Vibrio in som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 134:223-229

Pillai, S., A. Arpanaei, R.L. Meyer, V. Birkedal, L. Gram, F. Besenbacher and P. Kingshott 2009. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract. Biomacromolecules 10: 2759-2766 .


2008 (7)

Porsby, C.H., K.F. Nielsen, and L. Gram 2008. Phaeobacter and Ruegeria species of the Roseobacter clade colonize different niches in a Danish turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) rearing farm and antagonize turbot larval pathogens under different growth conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 7356-7354

Gottlieb, C.T., L.E. Thomsen, H. Ingmer, P.H. Mygind, H.H. Kristensen and L. Gram 2008. Antimicrobial peptides effectively kill a broad spectrum of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus strains independently of origin or virulence factor expression BMC Microbiology 8:205

Jensen, A., D. Williams, E. A. Irving, L. Gram and M. A. Smith 2008. A processing plant persistent strain of Listeria monocytogenes crosses the feto-placental barrier in a pregnant guinea pig model. J. Food Prot. 71:1028-1034

Vejborg, R., N. Bernbom, L. Gram and P. Klemm 2008. Anti-adhesive properties of fish tropomyosins. J. Appl. Microbiol. 105:141-150

Geng, H., J.B. Bruhn, K.F.  Nielsen, L. Gram and R. Belas 2008. Genetic dissection of tropodithietic acid biosynthesis by marine roseobacters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:1535-1545

Porsby, C.H. , B.F., Vogel and L. Gram 2008. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked fish production on Listeria monocytogenes survival and growth. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 122:287-295

Jensen, A., L.E. Thomsen, R.L. Jensen, M.H. Larsen, B.B. Roldgaard, B.C. Christensen, B.F. Vogel, L. Gram and H. Ingmer 2008. Processing plant persistent strains of Listeria monocytogenes appear to have a lower virulence potential than clinical strains in selected virulence models. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 123:254-261

2007 (9)

Rasch, M., V.G. Kastbjerg, I. Dalsgaard, J.B. Bruhn, M. Givskov and L. Gram 2007. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by Aeromonas salmonicida and inhibitory effect of quorum sensing inhibitors on protease production. Dis. Aquat. Org. 78:105-113

Satomi, M., B.F. Vogel, K. Venkateswaran and L. Gram 2007. Description of Shewanella glacialipiscicola sp. nov. and Shewanella algidipiscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Danish Baltic Sea, and proposal that Shewanella affinis is a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella colwelliana . Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 57: 347-352

Bernbom, N., R.L. Jørgensen, Y.Y. Ng, R.L. Meyer, P. Kingshott, R.M. Vejborg, P. Klemm, F. Besenbacher and L. Gram 2006 Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel is reduced by aqueous fish extract coatings Biofilms 3: 25-36. Accepted and printed in 2007 .

Gram, L., Bagge-Ravn, D., Y. Ng, P. Gymoese, and B. Fonnesbech Vogel 2007. Influence of food soiling matrix on cleaning and disinfection efficiency on surface attached Listeria monocytogenes. Food Control 18:1165-1171

Martens, T., L. Gram, H.-P. Grossart, D. Kessler, R. Müller, M. Simon, S.C. Wenzel and T. Brinkhoff 2007. Bacteria of the Roseobacter Clade show potential for secondary metabolite production. Microb. Ecol. 54:31-42

Rasch, M., T.B. Rasmussen, J.B. Andersen, T. Persson, J.  Nielsen, M. Givskov and L. Gram 2007. Well-known quorum sensing inhibitors do not affect bacterial quorum regulated bean sprout spoilage. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102:826-837

Jensen, A., M.H. Larsen, H. Ingmer, B.F. Vogel and L. Gram 2007. Sodium chloride enhances adherence and aggregation and strain variation influen ces invasiveness of Listeria monocytogenes strains . J. Food Prot. 70:592-599

Bruhn, J.B., L. Gram and R. Belas 2007. Production of antibacterial compound and biofilm formation in dinoflagellate associated Roseobacter species are influenced by culture conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 442-450

Kastbjerg, V.G., K.F. Nielsen, I Dalsgaard, M. Rasch, J.B. Bruhn, M. Givskov and L. Gram2007. Profiling acylated homoserine lactones in Yersinia ruckeri and influence of exogenous acyl homoserine lactones and known quorum sensing inhibitors on protease prodution. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102:363-374.

2006 (7)

Bruhn, J.B., J. Haagensen, D. Bagge-Ravn and L. Gram 2006. Culture conditions of Roseobacter strain 27-4 affect its attachment and biofilm formation quantified by real time PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:3011-3015

Wulff, G., L. Gram, P. Ahrens and B. F. Vogel 2006. One group of genetically similar Listeria monocytogenes strains frequently dominate and persist in several fish slaughter and smokehouses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:4313-4322

Hansen, C.H., B.F. Vogel and L. Gram 2006. Prevalence and survival of Listeria monocytogenes Danish and aquatic fish processing environments. J. Food Prot. 69:2113-2122

Vogel, B.F., Y.Y.Ng, G. Hyldig, M. Mohr and L. Gram 2006. Potassium lactate combined with sodium diacetate can inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon and has no adverse sensory effects. J. Food Prot. 69: 2134-2142

Satomi, M., B.F. Vogel, L. Gram and K. Venkateswaran 2006. Description of two Shewanella species, Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov., and Shewanella morhaue sp. nov. , isolated from the marine fish of the Baltic Sea, Denmark. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 56:243-249.

Buchholtz, C., K.F.  Nielsen, D. Milton, J.L. Larsen and L. Gram 2006. Profiling of acylated homoserine lactones of Vibrio anguillarum in vitro and in vivo: influence of growth conditions and serotype. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 29:433-445

Planas, M., M. Pérez-Lorenzo, M. Hjelm, L. Gram, I. Uglenes Fiksdal, Ø. Bergh and J. Pintado 2006. Probiotic effect in vivo of Roseobacter strain 27-4 against Vibrio anguillarum infections in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae. Aquaculture 255:323-333

ILSI Expert Panel 2005. Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis - a risk-based aproach. J. Food Prot. 68:1932-1994

2005 (9)

Bruhn, J.B., K.F.  Nielsen, M. Hjelm, M. Hansen, J. Bresciani, S. Schultz and L. Gram 2005. Ecology, inhibitory activity, and morphogenesis of a marine antagonistic bacterium belonging to the Roseobacter Clade . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:7263-7270.

Vogel, B.F., K. Venkateswaran, M. Satomi, and L. Gram 2005. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of Danish marine fish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 11, 6689-6697

Bruhn, J.B., I. Dalsgaard, K.F. Nielsen, C. Buchholtz,  J.L. Larsen and L. Gram 2005 Quorum sensing signal molecules (acylated homoserine lactones) in Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacteria. Dis. Aquat.Org. 65:43-52.

Alves, V.F., E.C.P. de Martinis, M.T. Destro, B. Fonnesbech Vogel and L. Gram 2005. Antilisterial activity of a Carnobacterium piscicola isolated from Brazillian smoked fish [Surubim (Platystoma sp.)] and its activity against a persistent Listeria monocytogenes isolated from surubim. J. Food Prot. 68:2068-2077.

Hansen, E.H., T. Schæfer, S. Molin and L. Gram 2005. Effect of environmental and physiological factors on the antibacterial activity of Curvularia haloperoxidase system. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98:581-588

Flodgaard, L.R., P. Dalgaard,  J.B. Andersen, K.F. Nielsen, M. Givskov a nd L. Gram 2005. Non-bioluminescent strains of Photobacterium phosphoreum produce the cell-to-cell communication signal 3-hydroxyl-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:2113-2120.

Rasch, M., J.B. Andersen, K.F. Nielsen, L. R. Flodgaard, H. Christensen, M. Givskov and L. Gram 2005. Involvement of bacterial quorum sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:3321-3330.

Bruhn, J.B., B. Fonnesbech Vogel and L. Gram 2005. Bias in the enrichment procedure for Listeria monocytogenes: lineage 2 strains outcompete lineage 1 strains in University of Vermont Broth. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:961-967.

Nilsson, L., T. Beck Hansen, P. Garrido, C. Buchrieser, P. Glaser, S. Knøchel, L. Gram and A. Gravesen 2005. Growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by a nonbacteriocinogenic Carnobacterium piscicola. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98: 172-183.

2004 (9)

Bruhn, J.B., A.B. Christensen, L.R. Flodgaard, K.F. Nielsen, T.O. Larsen, M. Givskov and L. Gram 2004. Presence of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) and AHL producing bacteria in meat and potential role of AHL in spoilage of meat. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:4293-4302

Hjelm, M., A. Riaza, F. Formosa J. Melchiorsen and L. Gram 2004. Seasonal incidence of autochtonous antagonistic  bacteria, Roseobacter spp. and Vibrionaceae, in a turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus) rearing system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:7288-7298

Rasch, M., C. Buch, B. Austin, W. Sliehendrecht, J.L. Larsen, M. Givskov and L. Gram. 2004. An inhibitor of bacterial quorum sensing reduces mortalities caused by vibriosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). System. Appl. Microbiol. 27:350-359

Fonnesbech Vogel, B., V. Fussing, B. Ojeniyi, L. Gram and P. Ahrens 2004. High-resolution genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes  by fluorescent amplified-fragm ent length polymorphism analysis as compared to typing by  PFGE, RAPD, ribotyping and PCR-RFLP. J. Food Prot. 67:1656-1665.

Gram , L. 2004. How to meen an FSO - control of Listeria monocytogenes in the smoked fish industry. Mitt. Lebensm. Hyg. 95:59-67.

Hjelm, M., Ø. Bergh, J. Nielsen,  J. Melchiorsen, S. Jensen, H. Duncan, A. Riaza, P. Ahrens, H. Birkbeck and L. Gram 2004. Selection and identification of  autochthonous potential probiotic bacteria from turbot larvae (Scophtalmus maximus) rearing units. System. Appl. Microbiol. 27:360-371

Huber, I., B. Spanggaard, J. Nielsen, K.F. Appel, T.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2004. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of the intestinal microbial community of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). J. Appl. Microbiol. 96:117-132

Nilsson, L., Y. Ng, J.N. Christiansen, D. Jacobsen, B.L. Jørgensen and L. Gram 2004. The importance of a plasmid-encoded class IIa bacteriocin for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in cold-smoked salmon systems. J. Appl. Microbiol. 96:133-143

Hansen, E.H., M.A. Schembri, P. Klemm, T. Schäfer, S. Molin and L. Gram 2004. Elucidation of the antibacterial mechanism of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system using DNA micro-array profiling . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:1749-1757Kingshott, P., J. Wei, D. Bagge-Ravn, N. Gadegaard and L. Gram 2003. Covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) to surfaces is critical for preventing bacterial adhesion. Langmuir 19:6912-6921.

2003 (11)

Hilbert, L.R., D. Bagge-Ravn, J. Kold and L. Gram 2003. Influence of surface roughness of stainless steel on microbial adhesion and corrosion. Int. J. Biodet. Biodegr. 52:175-185

Sørensen, O.E., L. Gram, A.H. Johnsen, E. Andersson, S. Bangsbøll, G.S. Tjabringa, P.S. Hiemstra, J. Malm, A. Egesten and N. Borregaard 2003. Processing of seminal plasma hCAP-18 to ALL-38 by gastricsin – a novel mechanism of antimicrobial peptide generation in the vagina. J. Biol. Chem. 278:28540-28546

Wei, J., D. Bagge-Ravn, L. Gram and P. Kingshott 2003. S tainless steel modified with poly(ethylene glycol) can prevent protein adsorption but not bacterial adhesion. Colloids and Surfaces B:Biointeractions 32:275-291

Hansen, E.H., L. Albertsen, C. Johansen, T. Schæfer, J. Frisvad, S. Molin and L. Gram 2003. Curvularia haloperoxidase: antimicrobial activity and potential application as a  surface disinfection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.  69:4611-4617

Buch, C.,  J. Sigh, J. Nielsen, J.L. Larsen, and L. Gram 2003. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by different serotypes of Vibrio anguillarum both in culture and during infection of rainbow trout. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26:338-349

Martinez, I., L.-M. Rørvik, M. Seppola, V. Brox, J. Lassen, L. Gram and B.  Fonnesbech Vogel  2003. Genetic variability among isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from food products, clinical samples and processing environments, estimated by RAPD-typing. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 84:285-297.

Bagge-Ravn, D., K. Gardshodn, L. Gram and B. Fonnesbech Vogel 2003. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Prot. 66:592-598.

Bagge-Ravn, D., Y.Y. Ng, M. Hjelm, J.N. Christiansen, C. Johansen and L. Gram 2003. The microbial ecology of processing equipments in different fish industries – analysis of the microflora during processing and following cleaning and disinfection. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 87 :239-250.

Flodgaard, L.R., A.B. Christensen, S. Molin, M. Givskov and L. Gram 2003. Influence of food preservation parameters and associate microflora on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food derived Enterobacteriaceae. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 84:145-156.

Holmstrøm, K. and L. Gram 2003. Elucidation of the Vibrio anguillarum genetic response to Pseudomonas fluroescens AH2-supernatant exposure using RNA-arbitrarily primed PCR. J. Bacteriol. 185:831-842.

Christensen, A.B., Riedel, K, L. Ravn, L. Eberl, S. Molin, L. Gram and M. Givskov. 2003. Quorum-sensing-directed protein extression in Serratia proteamaculans B5a. Microbiology 149:471-483.


2002 (9)

Paludan-Müller, C., L. Gram and F. P. Rattray 2002. Purification and characterisation of a fructan b -fructosidase from Lactobacillus pentosus B235 isolated  from fermented fish. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 25:13-20

Gram , L., H.P. Grossart, A. Schlingloff and T. Kiørboe 2002. Quroum sensing in marine snow bacteria? - production of acylated homoserine lactones by Roseobacter strains isolated from marine snow. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4111-4116

Gram , L., L. Ravn, M. Rasch, J. B. Bruhn, A.B. Christensen and M. Givskov 2002. Food spoilage – interactions between food spoilage bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 78:79-97

Nilsson, L., M.K. Nielsen, Y. Ng and L. Gram 2002. Role of acetate in production of an autoinducible class IIa bacteriocin in Carnobacterium piscicola A9b. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:2251-2260

Gram , L. and P. Dalgaard 2002. Fish spoilage bacteria – problems and solutions. Cur. Op. Biotechnol. 13:262-266.

Hjelm, M., L. Richel Hilbert, P. Møller and L. Gram 2002. Influence of silver coating on the adhesion of the food spoilage bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens to stainless steel. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92:903-911

Paarup, T., J.A. Sanchez, A. Moral, H.Christensen, M. Bisgaard and L. Gram 2002. Sensory, chemical and microbiological changes during storage of iced squid (Todaropsis eblanae). J. Appl. Microbiol. 92:941-950

Paludan-Müller, C., R. Valyasevi, H.H. Huss and L. Gram 2002. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92: 307-314

Paludan-Müller, C., M. Madsen, P. Soophanodora, L. Gram and P. Lange Møller 2002. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fish product prepared with varying salt concentrations. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73: 61-70


2001 (9)

Gram , L. 2001. Potential hazard in cold-smoked fish: Clostridium botulinum. Special supplement to J. Food Sci. 66:S1082-S1087

Gram , L. 2001. Potential hazard in cold-smoked fish: Listeria monocytogenes. Special supplement to J. Food Sci. 66:S1072-S1081

Spanggaard, B., I. Huber, J. Nielsen, E.B. Sick, C. B. Pipper, T. Martinussen, W.J. Slierendrecht and L. Gram 2001. The probiotic potential against vibriosis of the indigenous microflora of rainbow trout. Env. Microbiol. 3:755-765

Himelbloom, B., L. Nilsson and L. Gram 2001. Factors affecting production of a bacteriocin produced by an antilisterial Carnobacterium piscicola. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91: 506-513.  

Gram , L., T. Løvold, J. Melchiorsen, J. Nielsen and B. Spanggaard 2001. In vitro antagonism of the probiont Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against Aeromonas salmonicida does not confer protection of salmon against furunculosis. Aquaculture 199:1-11

Vogel, B.F., B. Ojeniyi, P. Ahrens, L. Due Skov, H.H. Huss and L. Gram 2001. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:2586-2595

Bagge, D., C. Johansen, I. Huber, M. Hjelm and L. Gram 2001. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:2319-2325.

Vogel, B.F., L.V. Jørgensen, B. Ojeniyi, H.H. Huss and L. Gram 2001. Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates found in cold-smoked salmon from different smoke houses assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 65: 83-92

Ravn, L., A.B. Christensen, S. Molin, M. Givskov and L. Gram 2001. Methods for identifying and quantifying acylated homoserine lactones produced by Gram-negative bacteria and their application in studies of AHL-production kinetics. J. Microbiol. Methods 44:239-251

2000 (5)

Spanggaard, B., I. Huber, J. Nielsen, T. Nielsen and L. Gram 2000. Proliferation and location of Vibrio anguillarum during infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis.  23:423-427

Fonnesbech Vogel, B., K. Venkateswaran, H. Christensen, E. Falsen, G. Christiansen and L. Gram 2000. Polyphasic taxonomical approach in the description of Alishewanella gen.nov. fetalis sp.nov., a strain isolated from a human foetus. Int. J. System. Bacteriol . 50:1133-1142

Nilsson, L., Y. Chen, M.L. Chikindas, H.H. Huss, L. Gram and T.J. Montville 2000. Carbon dioxide and nisin act synergistically on Listeria monocytogenes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:769-774

Fonnesbech Vogel, B., H.M. Holt, P. Gerner-Smidt, A. Bundvad, P. Søgaard and L. Gram 2000. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:443-448

Spanggaard, B., I. Huber, J. Nielsen, K.F. Appel, T.F. Nielsen and L. Gram 2000. The microflora of  rainbow trout intestine: A comparison of traditional and molecular identification. Aquaculture 182:1-16


1999 (6)

Gram , L., A. Bundvad, J. Melchiorsen, C. Johansen, and B. Fonnesbech Vogel 1999. Occurrence and survival of Shewanella algae in marine waters depending on water temperature and mode of growth. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3896-3900

Gram , L., A.B. Christensen, L. Ravn, S. Molin and M. Givskov 1999. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by psychrotrophic members of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3458-3463

Christophersen, C., O. Crescente, J. Frisvad, L. Gram, J. Nielsen, P.H. Nielsen and L. Rahbæk 1999. Antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi. Mycopathologia 143:135-138

Nilsson, L., L. Gram and H.H. Huss 1999.Growth control of Listeria monocytogenes on cold-smoked salmon using a competetive lactic acid bacteria flora. J. Food Prot. 62:336-342

Paludan-Müller, C., H.H. Huss and L. Gram 1999. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 46:219-230

Gram , L., J. Melchiorsen, B. Spanggaard, I. Huber and T.F. Nielsen 1999. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 - a possible probitic treatment of fish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:969-973

1998 (4)

Maximilien, R., R. de Nys, C. Holmström, L. Gram, M. Givskov, K. Crass, S. Kjelleberg and P.D. Steinberg 1998. Chemical mediation of bacterial surface colonisation by secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra. Aquat. Microbial Ecol. 15:233-246

Østergaard, A., P.K. Ben Embarek, C. Wedell-Neergaard, H.H. Huss and L. Gram 1998. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products. Food Microbiol. 15:223-233

Østergaard, A., P.K. Ben Embarek, J. Yamprayoon, C. Wedell-Neergaard, H.H. Huss and L. Gram 1998. Fermentation and spoilage of som fak, a Thai low-salt product. Trop. Sci. 38:105-112 

Paludan-Müller, C., P. Dalgaard, H.H. Huss and L. Gram 1998. Evaluation of the role of Carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5°C. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39:155-166

1997 (7)

Nilsson, L., H.H. Huss and L. Gram 1997.  Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cold-smoked salmon by nisin and carbon dioxide atmosphere. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 38:217-228

Kjelleberg, S., P. Steinberg, M. Givskov, L. Gram, M. Manefield, R. Maximilien and R. de Nys 1997. Do marine natural products interfere with prokaryotic AHL regulatory systems? Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 13:85-93

Fonnesbech Vogel, B., K. Jørgensen, H. Christensen, J. E. Olsen and L. Gram 1997. Differentiation of Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 2189-2199

Johansen, C., P. Falholt and L. Gram 1997. Enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3724-3728

Behrens, C., M.W. Christoffersen, L. Gram and P.H. Nielsen 1997. A convenient synthesis of pseudoceratidine and three analogs for biological evaluation. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts. 7:321-326

Pedersen, K., L. Gram, D.A. Austin and B. Austin 1997. Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup 01 strains compared to plamids, outer membrane protein profiles and siderophore production. J. Appl. Microbiol. 82: 365-371

Johansen, C., L. Gram, T. Gill, A. Verheul and T. Abee 1997. Protamine-induced  permeabilization of cell envelopes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1155-1159


1996 (7)

Gram , L. and H.H. Huss 1996. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 33: 121-138

Givskov, M., R. deNys, M. Manefield, L. Gram, R. Maximilien, L. Eberl, S. Molin. P.D. Steinberg and S. Kjelleberg 1996. Eucaryotic interference with homoserine lactone mediated procaryotic signalling. J. Bacteriol 178:6618-6622

Gram . L., R. deNys, R. Maximilien, M. Givskov, P.D. Steinberg and S. Kjelleberg 1996. Inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra on swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:4284-4287

Domínguez, H. B. Fonnesbech Vogel, L. Gram, S. Hoffmann and S. Schæbel 1996.  Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:1036-1039

Gram , L. and J. Melchiorsen 1996. Interaction between fish spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 80: 589-595

Johansen, C., T. Gill and L. Gram 1996. Changes in cell morphology of Listeria monocytogenes and Shewanella putrefaciens resulting from the action of protamine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:1058-1064

Gram , L 1996. The influence of substrate on siderophore production by fish spoilage bacteria. J. Microbiol. Meth. 25:199-205


1995 (3)

Anthoni, U., C. Christophersen, P.H. Nielsen, L. Gram and B.O. Petersen 1995. Pseudomonine, an isoxazole with siderophoric activity from Pseudomonas fluorescens, AH2 isolated from Lake Victorian Nile perch. J. Nat. Prod. 58: 1786-1789

Johansen, C., T.A. Gill and L. Gram 1995. Antibacterial effect of protamine assayed by impediometry J. Appl. Bacteriol. 78:297-303

Huss, H.H., V.F. Jeppesen, C. Johansen and L. Gram 1995. Biopreservation of fish products. A review of recent approaches and results. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 4:5-26


1994 (3)

Spanggaard, B., L. Gram, Y. Okamoto and H.H. Huss 1994. Growth of the fish pathogenic fungus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, measured by conductimetry and microscopy. J. Fish. Dis.  17:145-153

Johansen, C., L. Gram and A. S. Meyer 1994. The combined inhibitory effect of lysozyme and low pH on growth of Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Prot.  57:561-566

Gram , L. 1994. Siderophore-mediated iron sequestering by Shewanella putrefaciens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:2132-2136


1993 (4)

Spanggaard, B., F. Jørgensen, L. Gram and H.H. Huss 1993. Antibiotic resistance against oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid of bacteria isolated from three freshwater fish farms and an unpolluted stream in Denmark. Aquaculture 115:195-207

Fonnesbech, B., H. Frøkjær, L. Gram and C.M. Jespersen 1993. Production and specificities of poly- and monoclonal antibodies against Shewanella putrefaciens. J.Appl.Bacteriol. 74:444-451

Dalgaard, P., L. Gram and H.H. Huss 1993. Spoilage and shelf life of cod fillets packed in vacuum or modified atmosphere. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 19:283-294

Gram , L. 1993. Inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of Pseudmonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 59:2197-2203


1992 (1)

Gram , L. 1992. Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of seafood. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 16:25-39


1991 (2)

Anthoni, U., C. Christophersen, L. Gram, N.H. Nielsen and P.H. Nielsen 1991. Poisonings from flesh of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus may be due to Trimethylamine. Toxicon 29:1205‑1212

Gram , L. 1991. Inhibition of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. by salt, potassium sorbate, smoke extract and chilling. J. Food Prot. 54(6):436‑442


1990 (2)

Anthoni, U., T. Børresen, C. Christophersen, L. Gram, and P.H. Nielsen 1990. Is Trimethylamine oxide is a reliable indicator for the marine origin of fishes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 97B:569‑571

Gram , L., C. Wedell‑Neergaard and H.H. Huss 1990. The bacteriology of spoiling Lake Victorian Nile perch (Lates niloticus). Int. J.Food Microbiol. 10:303‑316


1989 (1)

Gram , L., J. Oundo and J. Bon 1989. Storage life of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) dependent on storage temperature and inital bacterial load. Tropical Science 29:221‑236


1987 (1)

Gram , L., G. Trolle and H.H. Huss 1987. Detection of specific spoilage bacteria from fish stored at low (0°C) and high (20°C) temperatures. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 4:65‑72


1985 (2)

Gram , L. and H. Søgaard 1985. The potential of Microcalorimetry as a rapid method for monitoring the microbiological quality of raw meat and fish. Thermochimica Acta 95:375‑381

Gram , L. and H. Søgaard 1985. Microcalorimetry as a Rapid Method for Estimation of Bacterial Levels in Ground Meat. J. Food Prot. 48(4):341‑345


1984 (1)

Gram , L., P. Pedersen and H. Søgaard 1984. An evaluation of the effect of catalase and 3,3‑thiodipropionic acid on the recovery of freeze‑injured coliform bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 1:155‑162


Patents and applications (2)  

Gram , L., D. Bagge and B. Fonnesbech Vogel 2005. Composition and method for controlling microbial adhesion and biofilm formation of surfaces. Serial No. 2003218628. Supplement to Official Journal of Patens. 24th November 2005

de Nys, R., M. Givskov, L. Gram, S. Kjelleberg, M. Manefield, R. Maximilien, and P. Steinberg 1996. Inhibiting microbial processes regulated by homoserine lactone – using furanone drivs., pref. from algae, e.g. to prevent motility, swarming and enzyme production in pathogenic bacteria. WO9629392-A1 (also a range of national protections).


Book chapters and book editing


Wietz, M., M. Månsson, N.G. Vynne and L. Gram 2013. Small-molecule antibiotics from marine bacteria and future strategies to prevent rediscovery of known compounds. In: Marine Microbiology: Bioactive Compounds and their Biological Activities and Applications. Se-Kwon Kim (ed). Whiley-Blackwell (in press)

Gram, L. 2011. Fish and fish products. Chapter in Microorganisms in Foods 8.  Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance. By International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (chief editor: K. Swanson). Springer Verlag. pp 107-134

Gram, L. and F.M. Aarestrup 2009. The good, the bad, the indespensable. In Engineering challenges: Energy, climate & health. Brodersen et al. (eds). DTU Press.

Gram , L. 2009. Microbiological spoilage of seafood. In Compendium of the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Bev erages. Sperber, W.H. and M.P. Doyle (eds.). Kluwer Publishers (in press)

Gram , L. 2006. Microbial Food Spoilage. In Handbook of Food Science. Hui, Y.H. (ed.) CRC Taylor and Francis Group. pp. 51-1 - 51-16.

Gram , L. and E. Ringø 2005. Prospects of fish probiotics. In: Holzapfel, W.H and P.J. Naughton  (eds) Microbial ecology of growing animals. Elsevier. pp. 379-417.

ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods) 2005. Microorganisms in Foods 6. Microbial Ecology of Foods (Roberts, T.A., L. Gram, K. Swanson, L. Gorris, J.L. Cordier (eds)). Klüwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York.

Huss, H.H., L. Ababouch and L. Gram 2004. Assessment and Management of Seafood Safety. FAO  Fish. Techn. Pap. 444.

Nilsson, L. and L. Gram 2002. Improving the control of pathogens in fish products. Invited chapter for Safety and Quality in Fish Processing. Bremner, H.A. (ed). Woodhead Publishing Ltd., UK. pp. 54-84.

ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods) 2002. Microorganisms in Foods 7. Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management (Tompkin, R.B., T.A. Roberts, M.v. Schothorst, M.B. Cole, L. Gram, R.L. Buchanan and S. Dahms (eds)). Klüwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York.

Gram , L. and H.H. Huss 2000. Fresh and processed fish and shellfish. In: Lund, B.M., T.C. Baird-Parker and G.W. Gould (eds.) The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Foods. pp. 472-506. Chapman & Hall, London, UK

Leisner, J. and L. Gram 1999. Spoilage of fish. In: Robinson, R., C. Batt and P. Patel (eds.) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. pp. 813-820. Academic Press Ltd., UK.

Gram, L.and B. Fonnesbech Vogel 1999. Shewanella . In: Robinson, R., C. Batt and P. Patel (eds.) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. pp. 2008-2015.  Academic Press Ltd., UK.

Gram , L. 1995. Bacteriological changes in fish post mortem (sect. 5.3), The effect of fish species, fishing found and season on shelf life (sect. 6.5), Microbiological methods in assessment of fish quality (sect. 8.4). In Huss, H. H. (ed) Fresh fish - quality and quality changes. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 348, FAO, Rome.